As of September 2019, a total of 14,849 Nigerians have received return, post arrival reception and reintegration assistance via the Joint Initiative. • Human trafficking is a high profit, low risk business which allows traffickers to generally operate with impunity. In addition, according to NAPTIP, 38.9% of all convictions in 2019 related to the procurement of persons for sexual exploitation, with 22.2% of convictions relating to foreign travel which promotes prostitution. Human trafficking in Nigeria is caused by a number of reasons, ranging from poverty to unemployment and illiteracy. Prior to the abolition of slave trade and slavery in the early 19th century, human beings were sold as commodities to merchants by kings and warriors in exchange for goods. ©2018 PathFinders Justice Initiative, Inc. 47,079 registered refugees and asylum-seekers in Libya, no longer within the top ten nationalities, Edo State Task Force Against Human Trafficking, signed into law the Edo State Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Bill (2018), Common Agenda for Migration and Mobility Agreement, largest category for Nigerian female trafficking victims. Human trafficking is an organised crime. Essay On Human Trafficking In Nigeria 713 Words | 3 Pages. Human trafficking in Nigeria has assumed unimaginable dimension in the last two decades due to several factors which include globalization, economic recession, poverty, conflicts, weak legal system, and lack of adequate legislation and of political will. Root causes of Human trafficking contd. CNN contends that Edo State is the most trafficked through destination in Africa. Human trafficking in Nigeria has assumed unimaginable dimension in the last two decades due to several factors which include globalization, economic recession, poverty, conflicts, weak legal system, and lack of adequate legislation and of political will. 1.1 Background of the study. IMPACT OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIAN STATE. Impact of Human Trafficking on Victims and Survivors. Subscribe to our mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox. Any action taken as a result of information, analysis, or advertisement on this site is ultimately the responsibility of the reader. Here you will see the meaning of Human trafficking, notable cases, causes, effects and possible solutions to the menace. What are the consequences of copyright infringement? Effects of Human Trafficking Women, who are sexually exploited, suffer similar injuries as those who are battered, raped or sexually assaulted. See 2020 U.S. State Department Trafficking In Persons Report. The individual is exposed to the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and infections, and, worst-case scenario, death. This study identifies the major causes of child trafficking that stand as a bottleneck in Nigeria. In 2016, Nigerians accounted for about 21% of the total 181,000 migrants braving the Mediterranean to arrive into Italy. They identify a void and offer to fill it. According to the same Report, most reported male victims of trafficking are age 11 and under, with most female victims (the overwhelming majority of identified victims in Nigeria) being over 18 years of age. Also, trafficked persons may also be influenced by greed, and as such, would do anything to “make it” in life, even going as far as selling their bodies as sex workers in European countries. There are also adverse effects … In 2017, a total of 18,000 Nigerian migrants were recorded to have arrived into Europe via the Mediterranean, 5,400 of which were women (UNHCR, 2018). Law enforcement agencies like The Nigeria customs service, The Nigerian police force, and The Nigerian immigration service should provide organizations like NAPTIP with relevant intelligence to help prohibit individuals from being trafficked across the nation’s borders. The Index maintains that modern day slavery is most prevalent in Africa (with 9.24 million slaves and an average vulnerability score of 62/100). Read Also: Nigeria, Niger to work together to stamp out human trafficking. domestic servitude. According to the US State Department’s 2020 TIP Report, NAPTIP received 943 cases for investigation, completed 210 investigations, prosecuted at least 64 suspects in 64 cases, and convicted 27 traffickers, compared with receiving 938 cases for investigation, completing 192 investigations, 64 prosecutions, and 43 convictions in the previous reporting period. Nigeria border is having a bad reputation through the porosity of the border which is easily accessible illegally for committing different kinds of crime like smuggling of people, trafficking of people, foodstuff, cloth, … google_ad_height = 250; InfoGuide Nigeria is a multi-author blog in Nigeria founded by Ifiokobong Ibanga. The UN’s International Organization for Migration (IOM) further reports that as of January 31, 2020, there were 47,079 registered refugees and asylum-seekers in Libya. This study focuses on the causes, effects and remedies of Child . A total of 42,517 victims (almost double the previous year- 24,407) were identified. Below are some of the causes of human trafficking: Poverty is one of the major causes of human trafficking in today’s world. Given the underground nature of trafficking, its consequences are hidden and difficult to see. There are also adverse effects on the population of the countries involved. European nations, like Spain and Italy, are the major target of those fleeing the nation, and recently, it was discovered that Italy has the highest population of Nigerian’s victimized by human trafficking, with over 20,000 women and girls found to be prostituting on the streets of Italy. NAPTIP, in its 2018 Report, confirms that the largest number of victims rescued outside of Nigeria were rescued from Libya and are from Edo State. Also, in most nations ridden by insurgency and terrorism like Nigeria, terrorist groups might abduct women and children during raids and attacks, and these women and children are subjected to inhumane jobs in terrorist camps like sex slavery, and could sometimes be commercially sold to other human traffickers. The impact of human trafficking on victims and survivors varies depending on the type of trafficking and the specific situation. Human trafficking is a human right violation and every year; thousands of men, women and children are trafficked by those known to them and in their own communities too. Citizens of countries plagued by violent conflict, most times, seek to escape the tension boiling in their nations, and human traffickers play on this and provide opportunities for these citizens to flee from these conflicts. In other words, the post attempts to find explanations to why child trafficking is such a big problem in Nigeria in spite of efforts made, through legislation and institution building, to combat it. google_ad_width = 300; THE EFFECTS OF CHILD AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA, Largest Undergraduate Projects Repository, Research Works and Materials. Since then, Nigerian  arrivals have continued to decline. It is why individuals in underdeveloped areas are more prone to being trafficked. Majority of these men, sometimes, refuse to use protection on these women and girls, and this carelessness results in STDs and STIs. The EU is currently negotiating a readmission agreement with Nigeria that would force repatriations. Family members also driven by greed could influence the younger ones in the family, especially the young girls, to go outside the shores of the country and engage in illicit acts in order to make money. Human Trafficking: The Modern Day Slavery of the 21st Century. Traffickers prey on others weaknesses, unfortunate circumstances, unfamiliarity, and inexperience. One of the main causes of human trafficking in Nigeria is the complete disregard for human rights. There have been several cases of traffickers losing their life to this act. Human trafficking is the fastest-growing form of slavery. A country ridden by unemployment and poverty cannot successfully shake off the menace of human trafficking. These merchants provided weapons and fueled crises between communities to increase the supply of slaves. To advance our goal of structural transformation on the African continent, we are building a community of survivors who are becoming awakened to their potential and are not only poverty reduction driven, but are laser focused on wealth creation for themselves, their local communities and the continent. The general factors that increase vulnerability to trafficking in Nigeria include extreme poverty (now the world’s poverty capital), corruption, conflict, climate change/resulting migration and western consumerism. According to ILO report, an estimated number of 5.5 Million children are trafficked around the world and the rate of trafficking keeps increasing as children are trafficked for sexual exploitation, forced labour, benefit fraud, criminal activities, and many more. Human trafficking in Nigeria is increasing with both domestic and international human trafficking. Women and girls are also engaged in domestic servitude, with NAPTIP’s 2018 Report noting this category as the second highest in reported cases after foreign travel for prostitution. Women and girls represented 84% of the 15.4 million people in forced marriages, and 59% of those in private forced labour (8.7 Alliance 2017 Report). Keywords: Human, Trafficking, Nigeria, National Image, Moral Appraisal Introduction Human trafficking is defined in international law as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of Not so surprisingly, it happens to be the biggest organized crime in the world, after illegal dealing of drugs and weapons. according to the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization(UNESCO), Nigeria was said to be one of the leading African countries as regards trafficking in persons, both within and outside its borders. In this post, we discuss Human trafficking in Nigeria. These and many other commendable efforts have been taken to prevent trafficking in persons. • Although prostitution remains the largest category for Nigerian female trafficking victims who travel abroad, child labour is certainly another, with children engaged in domestic labour, forced begging, quarrying gravel and armed conflict. The paper also review the legislations put in … Human trafficking Supra. Also, the Federal government should put in an extra intensive effort to ensure the return and rehabilitation of person’s that have been forced outside the country through the illegal activities of human traffickers. IMPACT OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA - Prior to the abolition of slave trade and slavery in the early 19th century, human beings were sold as commodities to merchants by kings and warriors in exchange for goods. Human trafficking is a terrible menace to a nation and must be snuffed out quickly. • At Pathfinders, our theory of change is that trafficking ends when human dignity is restored. In August 2011, one Chilaka Ogbonna Emmanuel, a 25 year old man from Lagos, Nigeria, died on-board a Malaysia bound flight. Most rescued victims from NAPTIP’s 2019 Report remain from Edo State, with Imo and Delta States following. To win the fight against human trafficking we must understand why it is happening. Nigeria has a history of hearing financial issues causing significant unemployment and poverty. It is noteworthy that since the Oba of Benin’s pronouncement, the introduction of the Edo State law and the Task Force’s efforts, international donor efforts targeting the reduction of trafficking in Edo State and the European Union’s  (EU) externalization policies of border control and accompanying legislative wall, traffickers are pushing the trade underground and/or recruiting naive victims from other States, including Kogi, Ondo, Bayelsa and Calabar. Human trafficking gangs Nigerian have sent thousands of women into the sex market within Italy, Spain and the Netherlands. Trafficking of children is synonymous with exploitation child labour. Background on the Crisis of Human Trafficking in Nigeria. Read Also: Armed kidnappers attack community, kill 2, kidnap 3. Causes and Consequences of Transnational Human Trafficking in West Africa The causes of transnational human trafficking in West Africa are multiple. They are forced into heavy physical labor in hazardous environment. • Estimates released by the Global Slavery Index in July 2018 indicate that there are 40.3 million victims of modern slavery worldwide, 71% of whom are women and girls and 25% of which are children. Women (and also children) are often viewed as objects that can be sold. Consequences of human trafficking The victims of trafficking are exploited and abused, suffer from different infection contaminations and diseases (more often sexually transmitted diseases such as Hepatitis, Syphilis, and HIV), physical and psycho injuries, and even death. Supra. Only 2% of those who are trafficked are trafficked outside the country, according to NAPTIP (2016). H 2: human trafficking does have a significant effect on the economic growth of Nigeria. Your email address will not be published. Statistics for 2019 have yet to be released. Root causes of Human trafficking contd. IMPACT OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIAN STATE. Some family members may even sell the younger ones under their care to human traffickers without their consent. That figure is now on the decline, as Nigerians are no longer within the top ten nationalities of arrivals by land or sea in 2019. solutions to human trafficking in nigeria Human trafficking has been discovered to be the fastest growing criminal industry in the world. The law's prescribed penalties of five years' imprisonment and/or a $670 fine for labor trafficking, 10 years' imprisonment for trafficking of children for forced begging or hawking, and 10 years to life imprisonment for sex trafficking are sufficiently stringent and commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Stigmatization is another adverse effect of human trafficking. (In general, 83.5% of all Nigerians interviewed in 2017 reported to have suffered from physical violence of any kind during the journey, most often in Libya. Most traffickers recruit their victims between the ages of 6 to 24, because a young victim will easily succumb to force and give in. As a result, we at Pathfinders have successfully developed a trafficking profile based on 12 factors that establish our vulnerability criteria for potential female victims aged 15-25 years. Recently, in 2017, the U.S. State Department’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed the country in “Tier 2 Watchlist.” Also. • According to IOM, an astounding 94% of all Nigerian women trafficked to Europe for prostitution hail from Edo State, with Italy being the number one destination country. Women and girls are taken for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation/slavery, and domestic servitude. domestic servitude. Also, in 2015, Develop a center for Africa development partnered with NAPTIP to educate over 5000 women, teenagers, educators and youths on how to prevent trafficking in persons. Organ trafficking has been on the rise in Libya. See 2020 U.S. State Department Trafficking in Persons Report. Eventually, they’re trafficked to European countries and face harsher conditions than they did in their own countries. Fighting the menace requires a coordinated and concerted push from all stakeholders. UNHCR statistics indicate that in 2018, the number of Nigerian arrivals by sea and land into Europe continued to decline (1,250 arrived in Italy- 5% of total arrivals). Those statistics notwithstanding, the total number that currently embark on the journey from Nigeria to Europe remains largely unknown. The crime is as profitable as trafficking in arms and ammunitions and is the second most profitable criminal network to that of drug trafficking; with annual earnings of approximately US 32 Billion dollars (US State Dept). Many are returning to school, while others are small business owners; all are committed to changing their narratives from victim to survivor to Pathfinders advocate. When a person doesn’t know better, it is quite easy to deceive such a person. While, boys are taken for the purpose of begging, mining, and domestic servitude. (2015). The Government of Nigeria maintained strong anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts. Our aim is to provide daily living guide for Nigerians and her friends. Unemployment and a lack of job opportunities, like poverty, can quickly lead one into the deceptive hands of human traffickers. However, the difference between the two, is those who are sexually trafficked are subjected to the same, constant injuries due to continuous prostitution for example. It ties with the illegal arms trade as the second largest, after the drug-trade in terms of revenue generation for the perpetrators with an estimated income of … Women and children are taken from within the country’s borders and taken to other West African and Central African countries like Gabon, Benin, Togo, Niger, Burkina Faso, Gambia, and Chad, as well as other European countries like Russia and Italy, and other the Middle East and North African countries. Two thirds of this figure ($99 billion) is generated from commercial sexual exploitation, while another $51 billion results from forced economic exploitation, including domestic work, agriculture and other economic activities. The content on the InfoGuide Nigeria is provided as general information only. Greed, war, and political conditions can also lead to human trafficking. • In December 2016, the EU and IOM developed the Joint Initiative for Migrant Protection and Re-integration in Africa to address the challenges of unsafe migration. Nigeria: Human Trafficking Factsheet. The team comprises professionals and Consultants from different fields of human endeavour. Trafficking from Nigeria to other African countries (particularly Cameroon, Ghana and Mali) and the Middle East is also on the rise, with Mali being the primary destination country from which would be victims are rescued by NAPTIP. By definition, child trafficking involves agents for the illegal movement of human beings for illicit commercial and business dealings. Human trafficking is globally recognized as a modern day slavery with multifarious negative socio-economic, legal and health implications. Human trafficking is an ill plaguing our society even in the 21st century. Has this article been helpful? Effects of human trafficking in Nigeria Human trafficking has adverse effects on the individual and nations involved. The children suffer from lack of self-esteem, emotional disturbance, disorientation, and depressio… the traffickers. The major reasons for the persistence of the ugly phenomenon of human trafficking in Nigeria include pervasive poverty, unemployment, greed etc for the purpose of forced labour, domestic servitude, sexual exploitation, and rituals. Also, programmes should be put in place by relevant authorities to educate the public on human trafficking and its dangers. (It is noteworthy that the UNODC’s January 7, 2019 Report now estimates the number of children in slavery at almost 1/3 of all global victims.) I. Lack of adequate legislation and of political will and commitment to enforce existing legislation or mandates are other factors that facilitate trafficking in persons. They’re subjected to harsh inhumane working conditions, as sometimes, in a day, they’re made to engage in sexual activities with a countless number of men. Research shows that about 10,000 Nigerian prostitutes in Italy are subjected to human trafficking. • The total number of human trafficking victims outside of Nigeria is largely unknown. But for the purpose of synthesis, we would like to organize our ideas around, on the one hand, the socio-economic causes and consequences and, on the other hand, the politico-institutional causes and Greed, the unquenchable desire for wealth at any cost, no matter how immoral, is also another cause of human trafficking. Global Data on Human Trafficking Nigeria: Human Trafficking Factsheet. Impact Of Human Trafficking In Nigeria. This article is useful to curious learners, students, researchers, and policymakers. Download Undergraduate Projects Topics and Materials Accounting, Economics, Education (It is noteworthy that NAPTIP’s 2019 Report contradicts these figures, instead noting that it received 915 cases for investigation, completed 203 investigations, is devoid of the number of prosecuted cases and convicted 25 persons following a total of 18 convictions.) In August 2017, the current Edo State Governor, Mr. Godwin Obaseki, launched the Edo State Task Force Against Human Trafficking to fight the scourge of human trafficking and unsafe migration in the State. There are different forms of human trafficking in Nigeria. Also, children from other West African nations like Togo, Ghana, and the Benin Republic are brought to Nigeria and forced to work tedious jobs in inhumane conditions. Traffickers trade on human lives, subject them to gory and traumatic experiences in order to … And, even when they are aware, they still agree to these terms because of the promise of greener pastures. According to statistics by the U.S. Department of State, globally, 2 million children are trafficked into the sex trade each year. The federal government of Nigeria has continued to put in an effort to combat the menace of human trafficking, especially with the establishment of Anti-trafficking organization like the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Person’s (NAPTIP) – whose public enlightenment unit works in rural areas of Benue, Kogi, and Edo States, introducing grassroots programs, and even holding an annual race against human trafficking, with the first edition in Edo State, in 2009, with 5,000 runners – and the Women Trafficking and Child Labour Eradication Foundation (WOTCLEF). In Libya, migrants are held in detention camps, generally for several weeks to months, before they are placed in unseaworthy dinghies or boats on the Mediterranean Sea. The effects of human trafficking … Based on current knowledge (Out, 2003), Nigeria is a major supplier, consumer and also a transit route for human trafficking. Prior to the abolition of slave trade and slavery in the early 19th century, human beings were sold as commodities to merchants by kings and warriors in exchange for goods. It finally recommends measures for controlling the increasing incidence of women and children trafficking in Nigeria. According to IOM, there are approximately 356,000 IDPs  (as of November 2019) and 636,000 refugees and migrants in Libya (as of January 2020), the country from which a large percentage of migrants attempt the journey into Europe. In many third world countries like Nigeria, where unemployment rates are high, and job opportunities are scarce, human traffickers come to the citizens of these nations and woo them with promises of steady paying jobs and a better life in European countries, and these citizens are deceived by these promises and are won over. Required fields are marked *. • There are more readily available statistics on the numbers of women who are trafficked from Nigeria into Europe, particularly into Italy. This paper presents the causes and consequences of the trafficking of women from Nigeria to America and Europe. THE EFFECTS OF CHILD AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA, Largest Undergraduate Projects Repository, Research Works and Materials. INTRODUCTION. Worldwide, human trafficking is a canker that eats into the fabrics of every nation and impedes its development. Your email address will not be published. Codification of the Task Force to investigate and prosecute trafficking cases in Edo (total of 38 investigations and 22 pending prosecutions in 2019- down from 56 investigations and 20 prosecutions in 2018), following an allocation of N242 million by the state government) occurred on May 23, 2018 when Governor Obaseki signed into law the Edo State Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Bill (2018) in Abuja. Read Also: 5 traffic robbery suspects in police net. Fighting the menace requires a coordinated and concerted push from all stakeholders. The statement of this problem is to know what causes human trafficking in Nigeria one also to know their effect of human trafficking in Oredo Local Government Area to provide a suitable recommendation on the causes and effect of human trafficking in Nigeria in order to improve the standard of our economy and the people in the country. 1.1 Background of the study. This stigma affects, adversely, their already depleting mental and emotional state, and worsens their psychological trauma. • Nigeria remains a source, transit and destination country when it comes to human trafficking. Human trafficking is an organised crime. The media and the general public should also provide relevant information regarding the illegal activity of human traffickers to the appropriate agencies. There are different forms of human trafficking in Nigeria. The general public is not left out as well. In this article, we highlight the root causes of human trafficking in Nigeria. Human trafficking is a human right violation and every year; thousands of men, women and children are trafficked by those known to them and in their own communities too. Download Undergraduate Projects Topics and Materials Accounting, Economics, Education Per the latest Global Slavery Index (2018) Report, Nigeria ranks 32/167 of the countries with the highest number of slaves – 1,386,000 – and its National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) reports that the average age of trafficked children in Nigeria, recently downgraded to a Tier 2 Watch country on the U.S. State Department’s Trafficking In Persons Report (2020), is 15. H 0 2: human trafficking does not have any effect on the economic growth of Nigeria. Globally, in 2019, there were only a total of 11,841 prosecutions (down from 11,096 in 2018) and 9,548 convictions (up from 7,481 in 2018). Poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and security challenges are some of the national issues that lead to trafficking in person’s, and these issues must be tackled if human trafficking is to be dealt with. 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